Due to huge rise in oil prices in India after this COVID lockdown, people have started showing some interest towards self-sustainability especially in the adoption of solar energy and electric vehicle to their home for energy and mobility, respectively. There are lots of Industries and self Involves in developing of Electric Vehicle (EV) because of its huge need. As Indian government has claimed that India will move to 30% electric vehicles by 2030, there are a number initiatives for pushing for a shift towards electric vehicles for majority purposes. Electric vehicles (EVs) are a catalyst to the reduction of CO2 emissions and more intelligent mode of transportation systems. The government of India has encouraged mainstream electric mobility by dedicating INR 10,000 Cr to boost EV usage under Faster Adoption and Manufacturing of Hybrid and Electric Vehicles (FAME) II scheme and a 5% reduction of GST on electric vehicles.
The major components of the electric vehicle are battery, motor controller, and electric engine(motor).
Battery: It provides the energy source for EV. Majorly there are three types of batteries that were widely used such as Lithium Ion, Lead Acid and Nickel Metal Hybrid batteries.
Motor Controller: It is a microcontroller which manages the operation of EV and aids in distribution of power to various system requirements. This motor controller plays an important role in determining the efficiency and performance of EV.
Electric Engine: Electric Engine is nothing but an Electric motor which may run on either DC or AC. Most of the EV available in Market using Brushless DC Motor (BLDCM). BLDC motors are widely used because of its efficiency (85 to 90%) and lighter in weight. Apart from BLDC, Other Electric Motors used in EV are Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor, Interior Permanent Magnet Motor, AC Induction Motor, Permanent Magnet Switched Reluctance Motor (PMSRM).
With proper understanding of the above-mentioned components, anyone can convert their IC Engine vehicle to EV.
Internet of Things plays an important role in connecting the EV to the cloud network to provide features such as geo tagging, infotainment system, parking, predictive maintenance, and safer driving. For example: Ather 450x has smart features such as over-the-air updates, ride statistics, remote monitoring, and navigation. IoT along with Artificial Intelligence can make any EV into a smarter EV.
There are lot of opportunities and challenges for student research with respect to connectivity, intelligence, efficient energy management, safety features, and development of networked charging station. Changes of conventional transportation industry involves in utilization of electric cycles, bikes, cars, buses, and trucks.
It is the responsibility of the young budding engineers/ students to control the pollution by start using e-cycles.