Braille is a method of touch reading and writing for blind people in which raised dots represent the letters of the alphabet.  This system has punctuation marks and provides symbols to show the letter groupings. In this method the hands are moved from left to right along each line.  The index fingers and both hands are generally used for reading purpose. The reading speed is about 125 words per minute.

People who are blind can review and study the written words by using braille alphabet. These people can also become aware of spelling, punctuation, paragraphing and footnotes.

Alphabets, numbers and punctuations in braille format


There are codes that are available in braille  for writing text, music, and even technical material for math and science. Text or literary braille involves two forms: non-contracted or alphabetic braille and contracted braille for saving space.

Alphabetic Braille

Alphabetic Braille formerly called Grade One, writes each letter and word exactly as it is. For example, in Alphabetic Braille the word “can” is written by using three separate braille cells—one cell for each of the three letters in the word “can.” If you’re interested in writing shopping lists, playing card, keeping telephone numbers, reading elevator buttons and room numbers, or writing labels or brief notes, Alphabetic Braille can be used.

Literary Braille

Literary Braille formerly called Grade Two, is also called as “contracted” braille. For example, in Literary (or contracted) Braille, the word “can” is written in contracted form, using  one braille cell to represent the entire word. Since this method requires less space most of the magazines and books are written in Literary Braille. If you want to read novels, magazines, or newspapers in braille, it is recommended that you learn to read and write Literary Braille.


  • It is easy to learn and read.
  • Smaller than previous systems, therefore it is better for embossing.
  • It adapts to technology
  • Depending on the type of printers, you have options such as one – sided and two – sided to choose from.


  • Sighted person who have not learned it cannot read it.
  • Errors cannot be erased.