Cognitive Radio System is a type of wireless communication system where a transceiver detects the communication channels that are in use. The transceiver then immediately moves into vacant channels, while avoiding occupied ones. These capabilities help to optimise the use of available radio frequency spectrum so it also minimises interference to other users. The occupied channels can be avoided to increase spectrum efficiency and it improves the quality of service (QoS) for other users.
The wireless radio frequency spectrum is a limited resource, normally allocated through a licensing process. The licensed spectrum is not always used ideally. Finally, some bands are overcrowded (GSM) while others are relatively unused (military). Cognitive radio is very efficient to use and to share resources optimally and intelligently.
Cognitive radio network:
A Cognitive radio network (CRN) is divided into two main networks.
- Primary network- It owns the licensed band and consists of primary radio base station and users.
- Secondary network- It shares the unused spectrum with primary network and it consists of cognitive radio and users.
Applications of cognitive radio:
• Cognitive mesh networks
Cognitive wireless networks (CWNs) are present generation wireless networks—those illustrations network-wide intelligent behavior—in which network nodes are incorporated with cognitive engines
• Medical applications
In medical environments, CR has big potential to unravel interference problems caused by the scarcity of spectrum allocated to medical applications. Hospital environments like the OR (OR) offer challenging scenarios to spectrum managers, during which CR may be a viable solution to make sure electromagnetic compatibility (EMC)
• Traffic control
The Cognitive Manager controls a group of traffic lights during a junction of roads supported information collected from sensors installed on the various lanes feeding the junction.
- CR can help address connectivity problems in rural areas.
- It also can optimize RF operations for smartphones and IoT devices, Content delivery networks, also referred to as content distribution networks, and giant wireless hotspots.
• Disaster relief
• Leased networks
• City and campus wide network-RF coverage