5th generation mobile network is 5G. It is a new global wireless standard for broadband cellular networks, after 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G networks. It is engineered to greatly increase the speed and responsiveness of wireless networks and it is the latest iteration of cellular technology. Initial 5G services commenced in many countries in 2019 and by the end of 2025 widespread availability of 5G is expected.


Initially 5G networks will be integrated with 4G networks by most of the operators to provide a continuous connection. Architecture of 5G network illustrating 4G and 5G working together. The ‘Radio Access Network’ and the ‘Core Network’ are the two main components of a mobile network. The Radio Access Network – consists of various types of facilities including towers, masts, small cells and dedicated in-building and home systems that connect mobile users and wireless devices to the main core network. The major feature of 5G networks will be Small cells, particularly the connection range is very short at the new millimetre wave frequencies. Small cells will be distributed in clusters to provide a continuous connection, depending on where the users require connection which will complement the macro network that provides wide-area coverage. In 5G Macro Cells antennas that have multiple elements or connections to send and receive more data simultaneously are used and its name is MIMO (multiple input, multiple output) antennas. The 5G cellular gives benefit to users, that is more people can simultaneously connect to the network and maintain high throughput. Where MIMO antennas use very large numbers of antenna elements that are often referred to as ‘massive MIMO’, however, the physical size of the antennas is similar to existing 3G and 4G base station antennas.


Download speeds of 5G can currently reach upwards of 1,000 megabits per second (MBPS) or even up to 2.1 Gbps. To visualize this, a user could start a YouTube video in 1080p quality without buffering on a 5G device. Currently downloading an app or an episode of a Netflix show, take up to a few minutes but using 5G it can be completed in just a few seconds. Also, wirelessly streaming video in 4K becomes much more viable.


Even though the negative side of 5G are clear when considering MM waves how easily they can be blocked, or considering radio frequency (RF) less clear exposure limits, 5G still has plenty of worthy benefits, such as the following: use of higher frequencies; high bandwidth; enhanced mobile broadband; a lower latency of 1ms; higher data rates, which will enable new technology options over 5G networks, such as 4K streaming or near-real-time streaming of virtual reality (VR); and the potential to have a 5G mobile network made up of midland, low-band and MM wave frequencies.


5G network is more capable of air interface and unified from the other. To enable next-generation user experiences, empower new deployment models, and deliver new services, 5G has been designed with an extended capacity. With superior reliability, high speeds, and negligible latency, 5G will expand the mobile ecosystem into new realms. 5G will impact every industry, remote healthcare, make transportation safer, make agriculture precision, digitized logistics — and more — a reality. Over the next several years 5G networks and services will be deployed in stages to accommodate the increasing reliance on mobiles and internet-enabled devices. Overall, 5G is expected to generate a variety of uses, new applications and business cases as the technology is rolled out.